The Logical Fallacies

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What is a Logical fallacy?

The word “fallacy” comes from the Latin “fallacia” which means “deception, deceit, trick, artifice,” however, a more specific meaning in logic (a logical fallacy) that dates back to the 1550’s means “false syllogism, invalid argumentation.”

TYPES OF FALLACIES

  • COMPOSITION

Description:

The fallacy of composition is the fallacy of inferring from the fact that every part of a whole has a given property that the whole also has that property. This pattern of argument is the reverse of that of the fallacy of division. It is not always fallacious, but we must be cautious in making inferences of this form.

Logical Form:

A is part of B.

A has property X.

Therefore, B has property X.

Examples:

1.)  Every song on the album lasts less than an hour.
Therefore:
The album lasts less than an hour.

2.) In the case of Kian Lloyd Delos Santos, two policemen in Caloocan killed the boy and because of what they did and for whatever happened in Caloocan, thererfore all of the policemen in Caloocan were affected with this issue.

3.)  Everything in the universe is contingent ( could possibly have failed to exist).
Therefore:
The universe as a whole is contingent (could possibly have failed to exist).

 

 

  • DIVISION

Description:

Inferring that something is true of one or more of the parts from the fact that it is true of the whole.  This is the opposite of the fallacy of composition.

Logical Form:

A is part of B.

B has property X.

Therefore, A has property X.

Examples:

1.) Women in the United States are paid less than men. Therefore, my mom must make less money than my dad.

2.) The boys in my neighborhood like to play basketball after school. So my new neighbor, Kevin, will like to play basketball with them.

3.) I just read a report about teachers not being happy with how much they are paid. So, my Aunt Sarah who is a teacher must be unhappy with her salary.

 

 

  • BEGGING THE QUESTION

Description:

The fallacy of begging the question occurs when an argument’s premises assume the truth of the conclusion, instead of supporting it. In other words, you assume without proof the stand/position, or a significant part of the stand, that is in question. Begging the question is also called arguing in a circle.

Logical Form:

Claim X assumes X is true.

Therefore, claim X is true.

Examples:

1.) Fruits and vegetables are part of a healthy diet. After all, a healthy eating plan includes fruits and vegetables.

2.)  Smoking cigarettes can kill you because cigarettes are deadly.

3.)  The rights of the criminal are just as important as the rights of the victim. Everyone’s rights are equal.

 

 

  • AD HOMINEM

Description: Attacking the person making the argument, rather than the argument itself, when the attack on the person is completely irrelevant to the argument the person is making.

Logical Form:

Person 1 is claiming Y.

Person 1 is a moron.

Therefore, Y is not true.

Examples:

1.) How can you argue your case for vegetarianism when you are enjoying your steak?

2.) A parent who says that the teacher doesn’t know how to teach because she graduated from a community college.

3.) A mother who tells the pediatrician that she doesn’t trust his judgment because he’s never been a mother.

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  • BANDWAGON

Description:

The Bandwagon Fallacy is an argument that appeals to the growing popularity of an idea. This popularity is used as the reason for accepting it as true.

Examples:

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McDonalds-Logo.jpg

 

REFERENCES:

 

 

 

PHOTO CREDITS:

 

 

 

 

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